Thursday, May 28, 2020
Biology Chapter 11 Solved Question: The Lipid Bilayer (Other (Not Listed) Sample) Content: CHAPTER 11MEMBRANE STRUCTURE( 2009 Garland Science PublishingThe Lipid Bilayer11-1 Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. If a statement is false, explain why it is false.A. Although cholesterol is a hydrophobic molecule, it has a hydrophilic head group like all other membrane lipids.B. Phosphatidylserine is the most abundant type of phospholipid found in cell membranes.C. Glycolipids lack the glycerol component found in phospholipids.D. The highly ordered structure of the lipid bilayer makes its generation and maintenance energetically unfavorable.SOLUTION/ANSWERA: true, B: false (phosphatidylcholine is the most abundant phospholipid.) C: true, D: false (formation of lipid bilayer is favorable in water.)11-2 Which of the following membrane lipids does not contain a fatty acid tail?(a) Phosphatidylcholine(b) A glycolipid(c) Phosphatidylserine(d) Cholesterol11-3 Formation of a lipid bilayer might seem to be energetically unfavorable. However, this arrangement is actually favored because it allows a higher level of entropy than any other alternative. What makes bilayer formation energetically favorable?(a) Polar head groups form a hydrogen bonding network at the interface with water.(b) Water molecules form cage-like structures around hydrophobic molecules.(c) Hydrogen bonds form between neighboring polar head groups in the bilayer.(d) Fatty acid tails are highly saturated and flexible.11-4 Which of the following statements is true?(a) Phospholipids will spontaneously form liposomes in nonpolar solvents.(b) In eucaryotes, all membrane-enclosed organelles are surrounded by one lipid bilayer.(c) Membrane lipids diffuse within the plane of the membrane.(d) Membrane lipids frequently flip-flop between one monolayer and the other.11-5 A bacterium is suddenly expelled from a warm human intestine into the cold world outside. Which of the following adjustments might the bacterium make to maintain the same level of membrane fluidity?( a) Produce lipids with hydrocarbon tails that are longer and have fewer double bonds.(b) Produce lipids with hydrocarbon tails that are shorter and have more double bonds.(c) Decrease the amount of cholesterol in the membrane.(d) Decrease the amount of glycolipids in the membrane.11-6 Three different membrane components are shown in Figure Q11-6. Using the list below, identify the three components, and label the chemical groups indicated.A. glycerolB. sugarC. phospholipidD. glycolipidE. sterolF. unsaturated hydrocarbonG. saturated hydrocarbonH. sterol polar head groupANSWER (According to the diagrams from left to right)B, D and E (values from the list provided above)Figure Q11-611-7 For each of the following sentences, fill in the blanks with the best word or phrase selected from the list below. Not all words or phrases will be used; each word or phrase should be used only once.The specialized functions of different membranes are largely determined by the __________________ they co ntain. Membrane lipids are __________________ molecules, composed of a hydrophilic portion and a hydrophobic portion. All cell membranes have the same __________________ structure, with the __________________ of the phospholipids facing into the interior of the membrane and the __________________ on the outside. The most common lipids in most cell membranes are the __________________. The head group of a glycolipid is composed of __________________.Amphipathic hydrophobic PhosphatidylserineCholesterol lipid bilayer phospholipidsFatty acid tails lipid monolayer proteinsGlycolipids lipids sterolsHydrophilic head groups phosphatidylcholine sugars ANSWERS (According to gaps from beginning respectively)1. Proteins2. Amphipathic3. Lipid bi-layer4. Fatty acid tails5. Hydrophilic head groups6. Phospholipids.7. Sugars.11-8 Three phospholipids X, Y, and Z are distributed in the plasma membrane as indicated in Figure Q11-8. For which of these phospholipids does a lipase probably exist?F igure Q11-8(a) X only(b) Z only(c) X and Y(d) Y and Z11-9 Where does most new membrane synthesis take place in a eukaryotic cell?(a) In the Golgi apparatus(b) In the endoplasmic reticulum(c) In the plasma membrane(d) In the mitochondria(e) On ribosomes11-10 Water molecules readily form hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules, and when they encounter nonpolar molecules they must form hydrogen-bonding networks with neighboring water molecules. Which of the following molecules will cause a cage of water to form?(a) 2-methylpropane(b) Acetone(c) Methanol(d) Urea11-11 Membranes undergo spontaneous rearrangement if torn. Which of the following would happen if a cell membrane had a large tear? ANSWER (C) Vesicles form11-12 Membrane lipids are capable of many different types of movement. Which of these does not occur spontaneously in biological membranes?(a) Switching between lipid layers(b) Lateral movement(c) Rotation(d) Flexing of hydrocarbon chains11-13 there are two properties of ph ospholipids that affect how tightly they pack together: the length of the hydrocarbon chain and the number of double bonds. The degree of packing, in turn, influences the relative mobility of these molecules in the membrane. Which of the following would yield the most highly mobile phospholipid (listed as number of carbons and number of double bonds, respectively)?(a) 24 carbons with 1 double bond(b) 15 carbons with 2 double bonds(c) 20 carbons with 2 double bonds(d) 16 carbons with no double bonds11-14 Cholesterol serves several essential functions in mammalian cells. Which of the following is not influenced by cholesterol?(a) Membrane permeability(b) Membrane fluidity(c) Membrane rigidity(d) Membrane thickness11-15 new membrane phospholipids are synthesized by enzymes bound to the _____________ side of the _________________ membrane.(a) Cytosolic, mitochondrial(b) Luminal, Golgi(c) Cytosolic, endoplasmic reticulum(d) Extracellular, plasma11-16 Membrane synthesis in the cell requir es the regulation of growth for both halves of the bilayer and the selective retention of certain types of lipids on one side or the other. Which group of enzymes accomplishes both of these tasks?(a) Lipases(b) Phospholipases(c) Converses(d) Glycosylates11-17 Glycolipids are found on the surface of healthy cells, and contribute to the cells defense against chemical damage and infectious agents.In which organelle are sugar groups added to membrane lipids?ANSWERGolgiB. By what mechanism are glycolipids transported to the plasma membrane and presented to the extracellular environment?Draw a diagram to support your answer to part B.Membrane Proteins11-18 A group of membrane proteins can be extracted from membranes only by using detergents. All the proteins in this group have a similar amino acid sequence at their C-terminus: -KKKKKXXC (where K stands for lysine, X stands for any amino acid, and C stands for cysteine). This sequence is essential for their attachment to the membrane. What is the most likely way in which the C-terminal sequence attaches these proteins to the membrane?(a)The cysteine residue is covalently attached to a membrane lipid.(b)The peptide spans the membrane as and ÃÅ½ helix.(c)The peptide spans the membrane as part of a ÃÅ½Ã ² sheet.(d)The positively charged lysine residues interact with an acidic integral membrane protein.11-19although membrane proteins contribute roughly 50% of the total mass of the membrane, there are about 50 times more lipid molecules than there are protein molecules in cellular membranes. Explain this apparent discrepancy. ANSWER Membrane proteins are much larger molecules than the membrane lipids. Thus, fewer are required to represent the same total mass contributed by the lipid components of the membrane. By this estimation, the molecular weight of the average membrane protein is 50 times that of the average membrane lipid.11-20 indicate whether the following statements are true or false. If a statement is false .Lipid-linked proteins are classified as peripheral membrane proteins because the polypeptide chain does not pass through the bilayer.FalseA protein can be embedded on the cytosolic side of the membrane bilayer by employing a hydrophobic ÃÅ½ helix.FalseA protein that relies on proteinprotein interactions to stabilize its membrane association is classified as a peripheral membrane protein because it can be dissociated without the use of detergents.TrueMembrane proteins that pump ions in and out of the cell are classified as enzymes.False11-21 A small membrane vesicle containing a Trans membrane protein is shown in Figure Q11-21. Assume that this membrane vesicle is in the cytoplasm of a cell.Figure Q11-21Label the cytosolic and non-cytosolic faces of the membrane vesicle. This membrane vesicle will undergo fusion with the plasma membrane.B. Sketch the plasma membrane after vesicle fusion, indicating the new location of the vesicle membrane and the Trans membrane protein carried by the membrane vesicle.C. On your drawing for B, label the original cytosolic and no cytosolic faces of the vesicle membrane as it resides in the plasma membrane. Also label the extracellular space and the cytosol. Indicate the N- and C-terminus of the inserted Trans membrane protein.ANSWER11-22Poring proteins form large, barrel-like channels in the membrane. Which of the following is not true about these channels?(a)...
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Ethics Case Study Ethical business behavior can be defined by business leadership. Ã¢â¬Å"Generally speaking, an action or choice can be considered ethically correct if itÃ¢â¬â¢s honest, fair, supports a beneficial outcome for both parties, and generally enables the overall corporate image and visionÃ¢â¬ (Definition of Ethics, 2002). In the following we will discuss how economic pressures on China, Jamaica, and America play a role in the ethical decision-making for financial, environmental, and cultural issues. Economic Pressures of China and Jamaica China 1. Rapid growth of the Chinese economy 2. Emerging into major power status 3. The need to reconcile Confucian and Communist heritage with demands of 21st century business 4. Fueled interestÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Based on the study of an auto parts contractor facing bankruptcy if its buyer finds out that a part it sold is defective, 69.4% of China stated the company had a responsibility to the public and only 4.1% citing that causing injury or death are too great to remain silent. Ã¢â¬Å"Countries are using utilitarian approaches and are selecting the issues they will support based upon country/economic necessities rather than upon ethical concerns aloneÃ¢â¬ (Fok, 2005). Positive and Normative Economics Ã¢â¬Å"Positive economics focuses on cause-and-effect relationships, avoids judgment, tries to establish scientific statements about economic behavior, and deals with what the economy is actually likeÃ¢â¬ (McConnell, 2005, p. 11). The studies done are a reflection of positive economics. A hypothesis was formed, data was collected, and a conclusion was drawn based on scientific tests. Ã¢â¬Å"Normative economics incorporates value judgments about what the economy should be like or what particular policy actions should be recommended to achieve a desirable goalÃ¢â¬ (McConnell, 2005, p. 11). Because of JamaicaÃ¢â¬â¢s low level of uncertainty avoidance, it embraces change and has a willingness to change whatever related systems have to change for the reforms to be effective. The Effect of Market Efficiency, Economizing, and the Market System on Ethical Issues Ã¢â¬Å"Market Efficiency entitles operating at an optimal point where the marginal benefit of each good is equal to its marginalShow MoreRelatedCase Study of Ethics5588 Words Ã |Ã 23 PagesDilemmas Case Studies Professional Accountants in Business December 20112 Contents Introduction ...............................................................................................................................3 Case Study 1...............................................................................................................................5 Pressure to overstate stock valuation ...................................................................................5 Case Study 2...Read MoreCase Study on Ethics and Dual Relationships in Social Work Essay1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEthics Case Study: Juan S. The social worker in this case study worked at the ABC ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Wellness Center. An ESL teacher at a local elementary school referred Juan S. to her. Juan came to the center with his mother, Silvia. Before seeing Juan and his mother, the social worker called the ESL teacher who referred Juan to her to discuss the case. The teacher reported that Juan was showing little interest in classroom activities or his peers, and always seemed exhausted. He was irritable andRead MoreEthics Case Study772 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEthics Case Study Ronda Butman University of Phoenix Health Care Ethics and Social Responsibility HCS 335 Nicovich November 26, 2010 Ethics Case Study In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s health care culture some individuals are presented to undertake unlawful medical actions based on personal guidance; however, ethical and legal issues effect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions if he or she is not qualified to make such decisions. The case of Jerry McCall is an example of such a scenario in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s health care environment. Read MoreEthics Case Study1149 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEthics Case Study Everyday health care workers around the world are faced with tough decisions. The law guides many decisions but some decisions require ethical considerations. Making good ethical decisions is not always as easy as it seems. Making ethical decisions is even harder when the primary intention is to be helpful, but it is beyond an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s qualifications. JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Qualifications versus Necessary Qualifications Qualification as a medical assistant and a licensed practicalRead MoreEthics Case Study817 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbenefits). Reference Legge Jr, J. Durant, R. (2010). Public Opinion, Risk Assessment, and Biotechnology: Lessons from Attitudes toward Genetically Modified Foods in the European Union.The Policy Studies Organization, Vol 27, # 1 Smyth, S. Phillips, P. (2014). Risk, regulation and biotechnology: The case of GM crops.GM Crops Food 5:3, 170--177 Romeis, J. et al. (2008). Assessment of risk of insect-resistant transgenic crops to nontarget arthropods. Nature Biotechnology, Vol 26, Number 2 HindoRead MoreEthics Case Studies1850 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesopportunity to be the ultimate sacrificial lamb. However, there was the fulfillment of the words of the prophets of God and the divine Jesus that would not allow for choice to be an option or a factor in the crucifixion and resurrection. Divine Command ethics assumes that the Christ story has once and for all been lived out and all of humanity is to live based on the example given, but to live freely based on this example. Therefore, there would be room for a parent or parents to graciously offer theRead MoreEthics Case Study : Paradyne1159 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEthics Case Study: Paradyne By Ali Khan for EE4400 1 Background Every good engineer will be ruled by ethics and moral code. Honesty towards his client and fellow team mates is a must for any good engineer. While building designs and turning innovative ideas into reality require dedication and passion. Engineers in their day to day work face hardships and difficult decisions. We spend long and hard days at work. Solving problems in given limited resources and time does make life difficult and goodRead MoreEthics Case Study1862 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAfter review the table l decided not to disclose any information because the harm was more than benefit. Based on the information provided the percentage of infection is very small. The side effective of action is more harmful because the company might close down and coworker will lose job, so many lawsuits in court from previous patients, I will not be able to support my family because l wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have a job. Deontologist According to Deontology is states that an act done or something done that isRead MoreCase Study On Business Ethics965 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Course Date StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name Institution Case Study on Business Ethics Introduction Ethics describes combination of values that guide the behavior and conduct of persons or entities. It facilitates them to distinguish between wrong and right, good and bad, what can be or should be done and what cannot and should not be done. Business contracts are lawfully binding. However, they are effectual with a robust ethical framework where parties observe and satisfy their contractual responsibilitiesRead MoreCase Study : Ethics Applied1548 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAbstract Throughout this paper the principles and concepts examined throughout the last eight weeks of coursework will be applied to the Nortel Case Study. After a brief introductory discussion of the Nortel Case, a greater understanding of the ethical ramifications of the situation will be facilitated by answering five key questions. Nortel Case Study: Ethics Applied Introduction: Over the last two decades the business world has been rocked by several prominent business scandals such as Enron, WorldCom
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Imagine a world where honesty was the only option. People could not lie if they wanted to. The concept of a lie is inconceivable to the inhabitants of the this made up world. Politicians are as see-through as glass, and criminals convict themselves within seconds. Now place yourself in this world, with the knowledge and understanding of deception. You are an Ambassador of a merited nation, and your country has declared war on a neighboring commonwealth. The citizens of this foreign state are apparently not so different from the citizens in your community, yet their government is unfairly claiming the land of less protected villages on the border of your nation and theirs. Your citizens donÃ¢â¬â¢t see the importance of declaring war over aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Any society that shares a common knowledge and universal interest make use of propaganda. Look at social media for example. Arguably, social networks are the perfect environment for propaganda to thrive. There are mil lions of online people pushing their own opinions and agendas. An easy example of modern propaganda is any caricature of President Trump shown as an overweight, orange slob. While this is how some view Trump, it is biased. On the other side of that, Trump is well practiced in his constant criticism of the media spouting about, Ã¢â¬Å"fake news.Ã¢â¬ Both the media and Trump push their biased through propaganda. In his WW2 fiction novel, The Moon Is Down John Steinbeck writes about a small, peaceable town that is invaded by soldiers, and the conflict that ensues due to the unwanted presence of a foreign enemy. The book starts out with a small battalion of soldiers invading a practically defenseless town. Here we are introduced to two principal characters: Mayor Orden and Colonel Lanser. Mayor Orden inhabits the elected leader of the small coal mining town. He is a conflicted yet honest leader of his people who gives the first impression of hopelessness in the face of adversity. Col onel Lanser resides as the leader of the soldiers. Given his position of power, heÃ¢â¬â¢s very understanding. He has a desire to get along with the people of the small town rather than use force to control them. Steinbeck goes into depth on the characteristics of the invading soldiers,Show MoreRelatedSummary Of The Crisis Number One By Thomas Paine719 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesHenrys Speech in the Virginia Convention were both written in the Age of Reasoning as a way to provoke Americans to fight for independence from Great Britain. While both Ã¢â¬Å"The CrisisÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Speech in the Virginia ConventionÃ¢â¬ succeeded in inspiring the colonialists, they both use different persuasive techniques. Thomas Paine uses a hopeful tone in his essay, as well as rhetorical devices associated with the future, to convince his readers. Henry takes a more aggressive approach in his speech, usingRead MoreWhy The United States Entered World War I942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWorld War I This essay will examine all nine readings. There will also be insight given to why the United States entered World War I, and whether or not the reasons were persuasive. Other things will also be discussed, including: what AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s war aims were, and how WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s goals were unrealistic, misleading, overly idealistic and moralistic. The fact that Wilson expected too much of international law and international organization. Also, why WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s goals were not achieved. That the nationalRead MoreComparison Of Emma Watson And Tim Watsons Speech941 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEmma Watson and Tim Collins Analysis and Comparison Essay English Language Assignment In this essay I will be comparing and analysing Emma Watsons Ã¢â¬ËGender Equality is your issue tooÃ¢â¬â¢ speech, executed on the 20th of September, 2014. Watson had pre-prepared this speech, as it was performed for the HeForShe campaign at the UN Headquarters, in New York. Alongside Tim CollinsÃ¢â¬â¢ speech to the 1st Battalion of the Royal Irish Regiment, in Iraq, 2003 Ã¢â¬â of which was an eve-of-battle rousting and of whichRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Patrick Henry s Speech At The Virginia Convention1915 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswhich he used to close his speech to Virginia Convention. During this time period, the 1770s, Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson all made arguments in favor of separation of the American colonies from Great Britain; many of these appeals were persuasive for different reasons, whether that be logical, emotional, or pertaining to credibility and trust, which is to say logos, pathos, and ethos. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Changing Organizational Culture for Drive Organizational Change. Answer: Project Description The company which has been selected for this research is Juice-Cola Company. Operations of this company are being undertaken from the past one year and it is a well-established company. Various activities have been undertaken by the company which include distributing fast moving consumer goods to various retail shops which are operating within the New York City. However, the company has been looking for a shift in the tactics related to the retail shops, employed by it. New focus of the company is on treating the universities established in the New York City as the main retail points. The main objective behind the change in strategy of the company is to ensure that high levels of revenue can be achieved. Moreover, the change in the strategy will help in providing high performance within the organization. Furthermore, this business proposal is drafted with an intention to enhance effectiveness of the organization in employee management. Given the increase in volume of sales, it seems to appear that the proposal is in line with the strategic universities targeted by the company. Change within an organization, emerges out of the market research, which seeks to inform the management of a company about the preferences of the consumer (US Office of Personnel Management, 2016). The company aims to offer affordable drinks, beverages, and snacks to the university fraternity of diverse brands and tastes at the reasonable prices. The company aims to achieve a growth in its annual turnover by 25%. The growth of the company is based on its capacity to expand. The success of the company will be measured on the basis of the number of stores opened. Company aims to open the stores in all the universities, as soon as the first shop is established in the New York City. In the first year, the operations of the company will be carried out in such a way so as increase the visibility of the company in various universities. Therefore, it can be said that the company wishes to create a significant milestone. Significance Business proposal which is being discussed in this report majorly concentrates upon the change in the strategy that a food and beverage company is undertaking with respect to their target market. For increasing the visibility of the company in the market, it is essential to increase the market of the products which are being offered by the company. Therefore, the company has opted for a change in the strategy which involves selling their products to the universities rather than the neighbourhood retail outlets. Proposal which is being discussed in this report is significant from the local, national and international point of view. Locally, this proposal will allow gaining an understanding of various parameters leading to increase in the performance of the company. Nationally, the proposal will assist the policy makers in understanding the preferences of consumers of the fast moving consumer goods sector and thus, will help them in framing the policies accordingly. From the internatio nal perspective, this proposal will help in laying the consumer choice theory into practical use and various directives pertaining to organizational change. On the global level, organizational change is being implemented for ensuring that the business operations are according to the social, cultural and political environments. On the local level, the proposal concentrates upon the requirement of the business to conduct a research in the market. Setting appropriate timelines are also supported by drafting a proposal. Therefore, it can be sad that the process is participative in nature and helps in bringing about a change in the organization. Literature Review Need for organizational change As per the views of Aykut Berber and Murat Yaslioglu (2016), an organization is like a social environment in which the value of the organization depends upon the people who are working in the organization and not by the assets it owns. Thus, it is often believed that the team must be managed effectively and efficiently, during all times, so that highest standards of performance can be achieved (Berber Yaslioglu, 2014). Global economy in the present scenario has had a huge impact on the manner in which organizations operate (Creasey, 2016). As a response to changing economic conditions, the organizations are under pressure to bring about organizational change and maintain the competitiveness of their business continuously. Organizations are required to frame their policies and strategies such that they do not impact the performance of the organization as well as that of the employees (Cristini, Eriksson, Pozzoli, 2012). Various ways are available through which the organizations can maintain their competitiveness. One such manner is to ensure continuous engagement of the employees despite the changes in strategies of the organization (Hewitt, 2013). Most important issue in the business organization is the matter related to organizational change. Organizational change can be said to be a process in which an organization seeks change as a response to meet the growing needs of people (George Jones, 2007). Success of this process is not only dependent upon how well the organization adapts itself to such changes but, it also is dependent on efficient managing capabilities of the management of the organization. As per Chen, Suen, Lin and Sheih (2010), organizational change "is a process in which an organization optimizes performance as it works toward becoming its ideal state" (Chen, Suen, Lin, Shieh, 2010). However, it has been often argued that organizational change "is triggered by a progressive manager" (Chen, Suen, Lin, Shieh, 2010). Reasons for Organizational Change As discussed above, organizational change is inevitable for an organization that wishes to become successful in the long run. Every organization is required to undergo changes so as to remain competitive. Organization change is not a one-time process rather an organization has to undergo certain changes every now and then to maintain a high position in the market (Haveman, Russo, Meyer, 2001). However, analysing and evaluating the factors that require change is essential for an organization because only then, it will be able to find out the factors that require certain modifications (Isern Pung, 2007). There are various reasons due to which an organization makes certain changes in the manner it operates. First reason for changes in the organizations can be attributed to enhancing effectiveness of the organizations. Factors that influence the effectiveness of an organization are widespread and incorporate in it all the factors which are related to changes in the external environment and internal environment. Hence, before undertaking any kind of change in the working of an organization, it is essential that the managers must consider the external as well as internal environment (Burke, 2013). The next reason due to which an organization might undergo certain amount of change is when it wishes to increase its market share or enhance visibility and mark its presence in the market(Brazzel, 2014). This will ultimately lead to increase in competitiveness of the organization and it indirectly leads to increase in profitability of the organization. Organizational changes might also occur due to the change in mission, vision, strategy, structure, technology, culture, system and style of leadership (Yang, Zhuo, Yu, 2009). When any of the mentioned factors change, it becomes essential to bring about certain changes in the organization. As per (Chen, Suen, Lin, Shieh, 2010), "Vision includes a firms organizational core value but one that also adapts accordingly to the external environment". This means, if there are changes in the external environment, an organization is required to bring about change in its vision accordingly. The term strategy has been defined as "the organizatio ns long term goals and the steps and resources needed to be considered in its decision-making"(Chen, Suen, Lin, Shieh, 2010). Change in strategy calls for certain important changes in the organization which may have an impact on the employees of a company as well. The company which has been selected for undertaking this research has changed its strategy that focused on concentrating upon the retail stores. Rather, the company is now focusing upon establishing new stores within the university campus so that more and more students get attracted to the store and it would ultimately increase the visibility and presence of the company. The company chosen for study now aims to open up stores in all the universities which are working in the New York City. This clearly evidences the change in the vision and strategy. However, such changes are not that easy to be introduced. Various factors affect the successful implementation of the organizational change (Harrington Voehl, 2012). One such factor is the resistance to change by the employees of the organization. If the changes are not implemented strategically then, it can lead to an adverse impact on the performance of the employees (Jones Brazzel, 2014). On the positive note this can also be termed as readiness for change. "Readiness for change refers to the degree of positive acceptance of the necessity of change, and the positive attitude toward the effect of change on self and the organization" (Armenakis, Harris, Mossholder, 1993). If all the employees are ready for change then only, all the strategies framed by the organization will be fulfilled in the long run. Thus, employee engagement during the times of organizational change is quintessential (Tripon Dodu, 2011). Impact of Organizational Change on Employees Increase in the complexity and interconnectivity of various economic, business and regulatory trends since the past few years have led to significant changes in the organizations across the world. Moreover, increasing competition has further fuelled the urge to bring about certain changes in the style of operations which are being undertaken by the organizations (Senge, 2014). Thus, the past few decades have witnessed changes such as mergers and acquisitions, restructuring and transformation of strategy for increasing the presence of the organizations in the market. As per the report by(Hewitt, 2013), in a survey which was conducted on the employees of the United States of America, the engagement level of employees during the event of some changes in the organization has been highlighted. The below figure depicts the level to which the employees engaged themselves in the organization during the time of certain changes: Figure 1: Impact of certain organizational changes on employee engagement (Hewitt, 2013) During the time, when the organization was undergoing restructuring, which had a significant influence on the jobs, 10% of the employees were actively engaged while 19% of the employees were actively disengaged. Similarly, when the organization was undergoing changes or transformation in the business strategy which was supposed to have a huge impact on the jobs of the employees, 10% of the employees were actively participating in the transformation of the organization and on the other hand, 19% of the total employees were actively disengaged. This study reveals that the participation of the employees during the times of change is essential so that the performance of the employees is not hampered. Managers must work towards improving the performance of the employees so that the organization is able to retain the best of employees. Therefore, the managers must devise certain ways through which positivity can be instilled in the employees regarding the organizational change (Purce, 2014 ). Drivers which ensure high level of Employee Engagement Organizational changes such as restructuring, transformation of business strategy and mergers and acquisitions hugely affect the performance of the employees, sometimes favourably and at other times adversely. Hence, the management of an organization must frame effective policies and strategies, which will help in improving the levels of engagement during the times of organizational change. As per the research conducted by (Hewitt, 2013), five most important drivers which can definitely ensure high level of engagement of employees were identified. The below figure depicts the drivers during the times of change and during no change, which can positively impact the level of engagement of employees: Figure 2: Drivers which ensure high level of Employee Engagement during change and no change in the organization (Hewitt, 2013) During the time, when there are certain changes that are being made in an organization, the first thing that the management of an organization must undertake is to involve all the employees in the process of decision making. They are not required to be involved in all the decisions but being involved in making certain decisions will create a sense of responsibility and ownership in the employees which in turn will increase employee engagement. The next important thing that can affect the employee engagement positively is by making the employees understand that such organizational change is essential for their overall development, which in turn would lead to a strong career path for them in future (Appelbaum, 2013). With the development of a sense of ownership, the employees of the company will make some personal sacrifices in order to make the organization grow. If organizational change is taking place then, the management of the company must ensure that the employees are encouraged at all points of time. Encouragement can be in the form of monetary incentives or praising the employee verbally (Bhalla, et al., 2011). These will act as a source of motivation to perform better in the long run. The last but not the least is the establishment of two way communication system. This will address the issue related to creation of misunderstanding which is normally a result of lack of appropriate communication system (Hewitt, 2013). However, these above mentioned drivers are different for different types of organizational changes. The below figure enumerates the top five drivers for various organizational changes: Figure 3: Drivers to increase employee engagement in varied situations (Hewitt, 2013) Related to our research are the drivers which impact employee engagement during transformation of strategy. Since, our research concentrates upon the change of strategy of the company with respect to target market, detailed discussion about drivers to improve employee engagement in that situation will be discussed. The first driver which can enhance the engagement of employees in the event of strategy transformation is by involving them in the decision making process of the company. The employees must be asked to share their views on the strategy framed by the organization to improve market presence (Alvesson, 2015). Also, the employees of the organization must be given an understanding about various personal benefits that can arise to them due to the transformation of strategy. Furthermore, the management of the company must ensure two way communication systems, which will lead to reduction of ambiguity and increase transparency (Fullan, 2014). The most important driver is that the employees must be provided adequate training in a case there has been a change of role due to the implementation of new strategy. Most of the times, changes create a spark of fear in the employees which has the capability to hamper the performance of the employees (Anderson, 2013). Thus, appropriate training must be provided to them so that they are able to understand the new role and give their best to the organization. Moreover, training is essential for the personal development of the employees as well. The last driver that increases the engagement of the employees during the change of strategy, which also turns them into high performing employees, is by providing them with adequate resources so that they face no issues related to lack of available resources. Adequate amount of resources are essential for the effective performance of the task allotted to them (Kirby, 2005). Thus, it can be said that the organizational changes if implemented cautiously and effectively will ensure increase in performance of the employees and also improve their engagement in the organizational tasks. Furthermore, the management of human resources will also become easy with effective implementation of strategies and policies. References Alvesson, M. . (2015). Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress. Routledge. Anderson, D. L. (2013). Organization development: The process of leading organizational change. Sage Publications. Appelbaum, E. (2013). The impact of new forms of work organization on workers. Armenakis, A. A., Harris, S. G., Mossholder, K. W. (1993). Creating readiness for change. Human Relations, 46, 681-703. Berber, A., Yaslioglu, M. (2014). Managing High Performance Work Systems and Organizational Performance. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Bhalla, V., Caye, J.-M., Dyer, A., Dymond, L., Morieux, Y., Orlander, P. (2011). High-Performance Organizations. BCG. Brazzel, M. (2014). Organization Change Theories and Models. Burke, W. W. (2013). Organization change: Theory and practice. Sage Publications. Chen, J., Suen, M., Lin, M., Shieh. (2010). Organizational Change and Development. Organization Science, 12, 1-13. Creasey, T. J. (2016). Exploring the Relationship between Organization Development and Change Management. Cristini, A., Eriksson, T., Pozzoli, D. (2012). High-Performance Management Practices and Employee Outcomes in Denmark. Discussion Paper . Fullan, M. (2014). Leading in a culture of change personal action guide and workbook. John Wiley Sons. George, J. M., Jones, G. R. (2007). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior (5th ed.). New York: Pearson Education, Inc. Harrington, H. J., Voehl, F. (2012). The Organizational Master Plan Handbook: A Catalyst for Performance Planning and Results. CRC Press. Haveman, H. A., Russo, M. V., Meyer, A. D. (2001). Organizational environments in Flux: the impact for regulatory punctuations on organizational domains, CEO succession, and performance. Organization Science, 12, 253-273. Hewitt, A. (2013). Managing Employee Engagement during the Times of Change. Risk. Reinsurance. Human Resources. Isern, J., Pung, A. (2007). Harnessing energy to drive organizational change. McKinsey Quarterly, 1, 16-19. Jones, B. B., Brazzel, M. (2014). Organization Change Theories and Models. Kirby, J. (2005). Toward a theory of high performance. Harvard Business Review, 83(7), 30. Purce, J. (2014). he impact of corporate strategy on human resource management. Routledge Revivals. Senge, P. M. (2014). The dance of change: The challenges to sustaining momentum in a learning organization. Crown Business. Tripon, C., Dodu, M. (2011). Change Management and Organizational Development. Retrieved September 4, 2016, from Apubb.ro: https://www.apubb.ro/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/OD_Suport_de_curs_masterat.pdf US Office of Personnel Management. (2016). Performance Management. Retrieved September 5, 2016, from https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/performance-management/reference-materials/more-topics/maintaining-high-performance-teams-during-change/ Yang, R. S., Zhuo, X. Z., Yu, H. Y. (2009). Organization theory and management: cases, measurements, and industrial applications. Yeh-Yeh: Taipei.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
EBay EBay is an online organization which deals with the auctions on the Internet. Everybody is given an opportunity to offer a thing he/she wants to sell and to set an opening bid and wait till the thing is bought. There are a lot of different items which may be bought from eBay, it may be a disk or a book which may cost $1 or it may be antique furniture which costs several thousand dollars.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Investigation and Design of E-business Solutions specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are a number of lessons eBay can teach us. First, eBay supports multi-language platforms, so that people from all over the world have an opportunity to buy things they like. Second, the auction lasts for several days, so that more people have an opportunity to take part in the auction. They also have an opportunity to search for the similar products to compare and contrast and bid for price. Third, th e company follows the tendencies in the world and using those advertises its products and the services they offer. The information mentioned above may be considered as the lessons people may learn. It is obvious that these three lessons may be considered as the company strengths. Having provided the multi-language platforms, the company has entered the international market. The products are delivered to different countries and people from all over the world can buy things as almost each item predetermines shipping. All real auctions last for several hours. People come there and should provide their bid at once. EBay offers some time to think and to make a choice, whether to buy a product or not. The software and other innovative technologies the organization uses help the company function in the way it does. The lessons are really helpful for us and they are considered as the strengths for eBay. Skype Skype is a world known company which provides people with video online communicat ion. The application free of charge, so people from different countries are given an opportunity to communicate either vie chart or by means of the headphones and web-camera. Moreover, there is a number of other additional opportunities Skype provides its customers with. Having considered some specific strategies the company uses, it may be concluded that there are a lot of lessons one may learn. Here are some of them. First, Skype offers its clients video-calling between the users who have installed Skype application for free. This invites great many people to the service. Second, the company also offers additional services for additional payment. Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People are given an opportunity to be reached by a traditional telephone with the help of the regular number. The price for such calls is cheap. There are some other opportunities which help S kype earn money. Third, the company offers additional services for its customers. The creation of premium numbers offer Skype customers additional opportunities. This shows that providing people with free options they attract more clients who are going to use additional services in the future for extra payment. Thus, on the basis of the lessons provided above, it may be completed that these strategies are the company strengths. Is there any company which provides its customers with free of charge communication? Are there companies which allow free video calls? All the information mentioned above makes it possible for the company to be the leader in the field of online communication. The services provided by Skype are used by millions people all over the world. Wotif.com Wotif.com is the online company which offers customers to book any type of accommodation in many countries online. Being established in 2000, the company has become a leader in the industry very soon. Having consider ed the main idea of the business led by the company, the following lessons may be identified. First, the company has offices in different countries of the world that helps it provide the quality support for its customers. Moreover, the offices in different countries show that the company is international. Second, the company offers the accommodation services in different countries and in different hotels. Thus, customers should not visit different sites of hotels to find what they need. They should just choose a country and the city they want and they will find the options for accommodations. Convenience and time saving are the qualities customers value in the organization and services it provides. Third, the use of Google services is really profitable. Wotif.com proved that spending money on the services provided by Google, the company earns more, covering expenses and earning more profit. The lessons we learned from the services provided by Wotif.com may be considered as the organ ization strengths. Thus, the company provides its customers with the complex services devoted to the booking rooms in the hotels worldwide. It is obvious that a customer would better use this site rather than would search for the hotels and compare and contrast prices there. All those operations may be made online on one site. Moreover, not each company has the representatives in different countries. This allows Wotif.com to solve problems, if any, faster.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Investigation and Design of E-business Solutions specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This assessment on Investigation and Design of E-business Solutions was written and submitted by user Paloma Waters to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Analysis of John Berrymans Dream Song Essays Analysis of John Berrymans Dream Song Paper Analysis of John Berrymans Dream Song Paper In his poem, Berryman presents the reader with the image of a deeply troubled, sad and lonely man and the half life that he is living. The voice of the poem is that of an outside narrator looking in on the life of Henry, most likely the persona that Berryman created in his Ã¢â¬ËDream SongsÃ¢â¬â¢. Through the poem, Berryman explores the themes of life and the inner demons that can hinder. The first line of the poem creates a hook and sets up the subject matter of the poem; that of a man and his Ã¢â¬Ënocturnal habitsÃ¢â¬â¢, his constantly restless nights. From this opening, we can already see that Henry has many relationships with the opposite sex due the Ã¢â¬Ëhis womenÃ¢â¬â¢ being plural. Berryman, in fact, was noted for having a series of infidelities during his life, so perhaps this could give evidence for the view that Berryman and his persona Henry were one. The line is further strengthened by the combination of diction and structure; the use of the word Ã¢â¬ËterrorÃ¢â¬â¢ evokes dread in the reader as the connotations are that of an intense and overwhelmingly blinding fear, and the end-stopped line forces the reader to pause and muse on just how Henry invokes terror in his women. In this way, Berryman immediately sets the reader up for a fall. Expecting the worst after the word Ã¢â¬ËterrorÃ¢â¬â¢, we are then presented with Ã¢â¬ËFirst it appears he snoredÃ¢â¬â¢. Such a mundane action almost adds a hint of humour to the melancholy, although Berryman dashes this in the following lines with the images of Henry Ã¢â¬Ëchanging position like a task fleetÃ¢â¬â¢. As a fleet is a large formation of ships, Berryman gives the impression that HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s tossing and turning is not merely trifling but is so forceful as to disrupt everything, as if there was a fleet of HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s committing the action and not just one. BerrymanÃ¢â¬â¢s diction helps to shape the image of Henry as a Ã¢â¬ËlostÃ¢â¬â¢ man. The words Ã¢â¬ËinhumanÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëdeath-likeÃ¢â¬â¢ present Henry as someone who does not appear at all human; he is a ghost of man. This is only emphasised by Ã¢â¬ËyouÃ¢â¬â¢ll admit it was no way to live/ or even keep alive. Ã¢â¬â¢- showing that the persona is barely surviving, keeping himself together with Ã¢â¬Ëdrugs and alcoholÃ¢â¬â¢, which present a vicious circle as these would further distort his mind. Berryman himself was an alcoholic and was hospitalised for exhaustion and nerves many times in his life, further adding weight to the idea that Henry was just an outlet for BerrymanÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. Berryman emphasises the dramatic nature of HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s sleeping habits through his pairings of strong verbs Ã¢â¬Ëthrashed tossedÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ësweating shakingÃ¢â¬â¢, the alliteration and the use of the ampersand reflecting the fact that these actions go on and on, continuously terrorising his sleep. The structure of the poem is just as important as BerrymanÃ¢â¬â¢s diction in shaping the themes. The poem has seventeen lines and is structured in two stanzas, the line lengths uneven. BerrymanÃ¢â¬â¢s rhythms are dictated by the pauses he creates, both slowing and quickening the pace. For instance, the rhythms in the centre of the poem are fast, reflecting BerrymanÃ¢â¬â¢s period of intense action; Ã¢â¬Ëreading new mail, writing new letters, scribbling excessive Songs. Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËSongsÃ¢â¬â¢ here is capitalised, possibly referring to BerrymanÃ¢â¬â¢s work of poetry about Henry, the Dream Songs. The rhythm and the themes are also aided by BerrymanÃ¢â¬â¢s use of images of sound. The alliteration in the poem is harsh sounding, the repetition of consonants such as Ã¢â¬ËhÃ¢â¬â¢ (HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s habits), Ã¢â¬ËwÃ¢â¬â¢ (Ã¢â¬ËwomenÃ¢â¬â¢s wrongsÃ¢â¬â¢), the harsh Ã¢â¬ËcÃ¢â¬â¢ sound (Ã¢â¬ËcouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t keepÃ¢â¬â¢), Ã¢â¬ËtÃ¢â¬â¢ (to the old tune) and Ã¢â¬ËgÃ¢â¬â¢ (gotta give goodÃ¢â¬â¢) further the troubled mood of the poem; for instance, the The poem is rife with sibilance, Ã¢â¬Ësweating shaking: somethingÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢; the Ã¢â¬ËsÃ¢â¬â¢ sounds create an almost unsettling air as if they are echoing through the night. The line Ã¢â¬Ëback then to bed, to the old tune or get setÃ¢â¬â¢ is filled with imagery of sound, the alliteration of the Ã¢â¬ËtÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËbÃ¢â¬â¢ sound force the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s pace to quicken before a sort of climax produced by the internal rhyme of Ã¢â¬Ëget setÃ¢â¬â¢; Berryman using the two words to bring the reader to a sudden pause before presenting us with his most striking image, that of the Ã¢â¬Ëstercoraceous coughÃ¢â¬â¢. BerrymanÃ¢â¬â¢s diction here is perfect as the Ã¢â¬ËcÃ¢â¬â¢ sounds running through the two words reflect the sound of a harsh cough, allowing the reader to hear it for themselves. BerrymanÃ¢â¬â¢s rhyme scheme is actually a rather traditional pattern of ABCABC DEFDEF GHHGH. However, despite most of the rhymes being full, such as Ã¢â¬ËbackÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËtrackÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËscribblingÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËquibblingÃ¢â¬â¢, the use of enjambment throughout the poem makes the reader stop only when Berryman wants us to, which ensures that the rhyming is extremely subtle. Hence instead of unifying the poem, as the rhyme is not evident immediately to the reader it seems to create an unsettled atmosphere that aids the picture of a tortured soul. Berryman skilfully utilises a blend of aural imagery and carefully chosen words to paint a melancholy picture of tormented man. The varied rhythms in the poem reflect the tumultuous nature of HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ënocturnal habitsÃ¢â¬â¢; the slow and fast paces coincide with HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s intermittent sleep and subsequent frenzied periods of action. The advice of the unnamed outside Ã¢â¬ËnarratorÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËsomethingÃ¢â¬â¢s gotta giveÃ¢â¬â¢, ends the poem; something has to be done in HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s life as, if he continues on this path and wakes Ã¢â¬Ëfor good at fiveÃ¢â¬â¢ each morning for normal life, it is evident that he will drive himself to the grave.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
World's Fair - Assignment Example These ideas manifested as planning to which the author refers to as usable future. In authors view, the theme of the fair was a new concept; he urges the reader to believe that what was being offered to the viewers was nothing more than fantasy. Fantasy was presented to the viewers to allow them to imagine and accept it as reality. Once accepted as reality, fantasy tends to arouse the desire to seek for what is being offered. Fantasy was presented in various forms; at some places it took the form of solutions to their problems while at other places the purpose was to highlight their cultural prospects. Referring to the modern art, the author asserts that there are two basic mental processes that give rise to the various forms of art whether abstract or other. Geography which follows logic as its central theme and conforms to the rational understandings of humans. Geomancy on the other hand is the product of exposure to inner experiences while following an "arbitrarily permitted number of variables". This assumption may be true for some kinds of arts, yet may not be applicable to all art forms. In authors view, geometry is appealing since it only has to be "internally logical"; while geomancy is tempting as it engages the role of viewer along with the artist to bring out something positive - clearly surpassing the limits set by logic. While talking about the relative success of geometry and geomancy the author is of the view that geometry has in influence far more prominent than geomancy. The reason for this is the fact that modern day consumers have lost their ability to appreciate the sensitive aspects of art which highlight things like "feeling, emotion, intuition and manticism". Since geometry depicts the creativity in measurable and logical manner and inhabitants of the modern world are tuned to follow and understand such presentations Ã¢â¬â geometry is more successful in art